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王毅在欧洲政策中心举办的欧洲智库媒体交流会上的演讲(1)(中英对照)

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Enhancing Mutual Trust and Cooperation to Embrace an Even Better Future of China-EU Relations

增进互信,深化合作,迎接中欧关系更加美好的明天
– Speech at the "Sixty-Minute Briefing" Event of the European Policy Center
——在欧洲政策中心举办的欧洲智库媒体交流会上的演讲
H.E. Wang Yi, State Councilor and Minister of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China
国务委员兼外长 王毅
Brussels, 16 December 2019
2019年12月16日,布鲁塞尔
President Herman Van Rompuy, Ladies and Gentlemen,
尊敬的范龙佩主席,女士们,先生们,
It gives me great pleasure to come back to Brussels, the heart of Europe, and share some thoughts with friends both old and new.
很高兴再次来到欧洲的心脏布鲁塞尔,同各位新老朋友进行交流。
The year 2019, which is drawing to a close, has been a productive year for China-EU relations. We concluded negotiations on the Geographical Indications (GI) agreement as scheduled, and signed two agreements on aviation cooperation. We made good progress in enhancing the complementarity between the Belt and Road Initiative and the EU's Strategy on Connecting Europe and Asia.
2019年即将过去。这一年,是中欧关系取得丰硕成果的一年。中欧按期完成地理标志协定谈判,签署两份航空合作协定,“一带一路”与欧亚互联互通对接也在顺利推进。
We reached extensive consensus on major issues from strengthening global governance, upholding multilateralism to defending free trade. Together, we delivered a clear message to the world that China and the EU are working together to uphold the international order and tackle global challenges.
双方还就加强全球治理、坚持多边主义、维护自由贸易等重大问题达成广泛共识,向世界发出中欧共同维护国际秩序,应对全球挑战的明确信号。
Following the official inauguration of the new EU leadership earlier this month, President Xi Jinping and Premier Li Keqiang have had separate phone calls with President Charles Michel and President Ursula von der Leyen. The two sides agreed to further deepen China-EU comprehensive strategic partnership, signaling a smooth transition of China-EU relations.
本月初,新一届欧盟机构正式就职,习近平主席、李克强总理已分别同米歇尔主席、冯德莱恩主席通电话,双方同意继续深化中欧全面战略伙伴关系,中欧关系正在实现平稳过渡。
To ensure the steady progress of China-EU relations, we need to, first and foremost, get mutual perceptions right and keep enhancing mutual understanding and trust.
中欧关系要行稳致远,首先应树立正确的相互认知,不断增进彼此理解与信任。
As far as China is concerned, our views of Europe have always been positive and constructive. We see Europe as an important cooperation partner and a priority on our diplomatic agenda. We believe that Europe is an important pole in this multi-polar world, and a prosperous and stable Europe is a contributor to the development and progress of humankind. Proceeding from such a perception, China has been firm and steadfast in supporting European integration, supporting a united and strong European Union and supporting a bigger role for Europe in international affairs. As for Europe, over the years, European countries and the EU as an organization have by and large followed a positive China policy, and worked with China to promote cooperation in all fields. That said, to be candid, there have also been divergent views about China in Europe, which are mainly reflected in the following three questions. Failure to address these perception issues may cause unnecessary disruptions to the future of China-EU relations.
就中方而言,我们始终以积极和正面心态看待欧洲,把欧洲视为中国的重要合作伙伴和中国外交的优先方向之一,我们一直认为欧洲是世界多极化的重要一极,欧洲的繁荣稳定有利于人类整体的发展进步,为此始终坚定支持欧洲一体化进程,坚定支持欧盟团结壮大,坚定支持欧洲在国际事务中发挥更大作用。就欧方而言,这些年来欧洲各国以及欧盟总体上也奉行积极对华政策,与中方相向而行,推动中欧各领域合作不断深入发展。当然,毋庸讳言,目前欧洲对中国也出现了一些不同看法,主要集中在三个问题,不解决好相互认知,有可能对中欧关系今后的发展造成不必要干扰。
Question No. 1: Is China a developing or developed country?
第一,中国到底是发展中国家还是发达国家?
In recent years, due to the rapid growth of the Chinese economy, some friends in Europe tend to see China as already joining the ranks of developed countries and they started to judge China by the corresponding standards. Some even go so far as to demand reciprocity at every turn. Let me draw an analogy with a 100-meter race. An early starter, who is already 50 meters ahead, asks to have a fair race with his fellow contestant, who is still standing at the starting line. Apparently, such a demand does not make any sense. Naturally, if it's in a much longer marathon, then the late-comer may stand a chance of catching up by running really fast.
近年来,随着中国经济快速发展,有些欧洲朋友认为,中国已经是一个发达国家了,开始用发达国家的标准来审视中国,甚至提出要事事“对等”。但就像一场百米赛,一方已跑出50米,却要求与刚刚起跑的选手对等,这显然并不合理。当然,如果是场马拉松,能有更多时间给后发的选手,相信只要努力,仍有可能后来居上。
Let me draw your attention to some facts. China indeed remains a developing country. Although China is now the second largest economy in the world, our per capita GDP is only one sixth that of the US, and one fourth that of the EU. China ranks below the 80th place in the Human Development Index, and lags far behind developed countries in science, technology and education. Unbalanced and inadequate development remains a prominent challenge for China, and industrialization is yet to be completed. Therefore, it would be "irreciprocal" in effect to ask for reciprocity between a country that has been developing for only several decades and countries that have developed for centuries.
我要告诉大家的是,中国确实仍然是一个发展中国家。尽管经济总量已达世界第二,但人均GDP仅为美国的1/6、欧盟的1/4,人类发展指数也排在世界80位以后,科技教育水平与发达国家还有明显差距,发展不平衡、不充分问题依然突出,工业化进程尚未完成。因此,无论从哪方面来说,要求一个刚发展几十年的国家同发展了几百年的国家“对等”,这本身就是一种“不对等”。
In this connection, allow me to quote from an ancient Chinese poem, "It's a mountain range viewed in face and peaks viewed from one side, assuming different shapes viewed from far and wide." This poetical line essentially means that things observed from different angles will lead to different conclusions. When an objective perspective of developing countries is applied, what we will see is an impressive picture of China's achievements.
中国有句古诗:“横看成岭侧成峰,远近高低各不同”。意思是从不同角度观察事物,会得出不同的结论。如果我们以实事求是态度,从发展中国家的角度看中国的话,将呈现出一幅极为亮丽的风景。
China has not only achieved tremendous progress in its own development, but also made far bigger contributions to the world than many other countries. Take the economy as an example, China has contributed more than 30 per cent to global growth for over ten consecutive years, serving as the leading engine of the world economy.
中国不仅在自身发展上取得巨大成就,而且为世界作出了远超其他国家的贡献。比如在增长方面,中国对全球经济增长的贡献率连续10多年保持30%以上,成为世界经济增长主要动力源。
In terms of opening up, China has more than fulfilled its WTO commitments, and reduced the average tariff rate to 7.5 per cent, exceeding all other major developing countries and approaching the level of developed countries. On the ease of doing business, China's position in the World Bank rankings has jumped to the 31st place, up by 47 spots in the past two years, making it the best-performing economy in the improvement of its business environment. On emission reduction and environmental protection, China has contributed over 25 per cent to the increase in the world's afforested area in the past 20 years. In 2018, China reduced its carbon intensity by 45.8 per cent over the 2005 level, meeting its international commitments ahead of schedule.
开放方面,中国已超额完成加入WTO时的各项承诺,平均关税降至7.5%,超过所有发展中大国,正在接近发达国家水平;营商环境方面,在世界银行发布的排名中,中国在过去两年快速提升了47位,前进至第31位,成为世界上改善幅度最大的经济体。减排环保方面,过去20年中国植被增加量占全球25%以上,2018年中国碳排放强度比2005年下降45.8%,提前实现对国际社会的承诺目标。
On international cooperation, China is now the second largest contributor to the UN's regular budget and peacekeeping assessment and the largest contributor of peacekeepers among the five permanent members of the Security Council.
国际合作方面,中国已成为联合国第二大会费国和维和摊款国,是安理会五大常任理事国中派出维和人员最多的国家。
Why shouldn't such a major developing country, one that is growing with strong momentum and making increasingly greater contributions to human progress, be welcomed and appreciated by Europe and the international community?
这样一个蒸蒸日上,并且为人类发展进步做出越来越大贡献的发展中大国,难道不应当得到欧洲以及国际社会的欢迎和肯定吗?
Question No. 2: Is China a partner or a rival?
第二,中国到底是合作伙伴还是竞争对手?
In recent years, we have heard an argument suggesting that China has become a rival of Europe in the economic field and should be subjected to all sorts of restrictions. Although not the mainstream view, we must raise our vigilance and not allow it to go unchecked. In fact, any cool-headed person with an objective view will see that, for China and the EU, cooperation far outweighs competition, and our areas of consensus far exceed differences. We are partners, not rivals.
近年来,我们听到一种观点,认为中国在经济上已经成为欧洲的竞争对手,主张对中国进行各种设限。尽管这种观点并非主流,但应当引起我们的警惕,不能任其发酵蔓延。事实上,任何客观和理性的人都会看到,中欧之间合作远大于竞争,共识远大于分歧,我们是伙伴,但不是对手。
Over the years, Europe has benefited tremendously from cooperation with China. Between 2001 and 2018, the EU's exports to China grew by 14.7 per cent on average each year, more than twice the EU's average export growth, supporting about four million local jobs. Investment of Chinese companies in the EU has also been growing. As of the end of 2017, Chinese companies have set up over 2,900 ventures in EU countries through direct investment, creating 176,000 jobs for the local people. Acquisition of Volvo by China's automaker Geely injected new energy to the Volvo factory in Ghent, Belgium, retaining and creating over 6,000 jobs. China is now the most profitable market for European companies. As many as 7 million cars, or nearly a quarter of all automobiles sold in China, are produced by European auto-makers.
多年来,欧洲在同中国合作中获得了巨大利益。2001年至2018年,欧盟对华出口年均增速达14.7%,是平均增速的2倍多,支撑了约400万就业岗位。中国企业对欧投资也不断增加,截止2017年底已在欧盟设立直接投资企业2900多家,为当地创造17.6万个就业岗位。中国吉利汽车收购沃尔沃汽车,使比利时根特市的工厂重获生机,保留和创造了6000多个就业岗位。中国现在已经是欧洲企业在全球最获利市场,欧洲企业在华生产的汽车数量占中国汽车销售总量近1/4,达到700万台。
Even with rising trade friction between China and the US and mounting downward pressure on the global economy, economic and trade cooperation between China and the EU has bucked the trend and kept growing. In the first 11 months of this year, trade between China and the EU was estimated to grow by 7.7 per cent from last year. From January to July, EU investment in China was up by 18.3 per cent year on year. Sixty percent of EU companies regard China as a leading destination of investment.
在中美贸易摩擦加剧、全球经济下行压力加大背景下,中欧经贸合作逆势而上,据统计,今年1-11月,中欧贸易额同比增长7.7%。1至7月,欧盟对华投资同比增长18.3%,60%的欧盟企业将中国视为主要投资目的地。
I would also like to underscore today that even with various factors at play, China, as a major developing country with 1.4 billion people, a 900-million-strong labor force and 120 million market entities, has solid internal growth momentum, great resilience and enormous economic potential. China is bound to offer a new round of cooperation opportunities and share the development dividend with countries in Europe.
我还要告诉大家的是,尽管受到各种因素影响,但作为一个拥有14亿人口、9亿劳动力资源、1.2亿市场主体的发展中大国,中国经济的内生动力、强大韧性和巨大潜力,必将为欧洲各国提供新一轮合作机遇和发展红利。
In its cooperation with Europe, China has always respected Europe's concerns. Take China-CEEC cooperation. We advocate the idea of openness, transparency and inclusiveness and uphold the principle of equality, mutual benefit and win-win results. Such cooperation follows market rules and EU standards and contributes to the unity and stability of the EU as a whole. It has been shown time and again that mutually beneficial cooperation between China and CEE countries is a useful supplement to China-EU relations and conducive to balanced development and the integration process in Europe.
在同欧洲合作中,中方始终尊重欧洲的关切。比如中国同中东欧的合作,我们一直倡导开放透明包容理念,坚持平等互利共赢原则,遵守市场规则和欧盟标准,维护欧盟的整体团结和稳定。大量事实证明,中国同中东欧国家的互利合作是对中国同欧盟关系的有益补充,也有助于欧洲的均衡发展和一体化进程。
Question No. 3: Is China a friend for harmonious coexistence or a threat in a zero-sum game?
第三,中国到底是和谐共处的朋友还是非此即彼的威胁?
China and the EU do have different social systems, development paths, values and concepts. Yet such differences should not become obstacles in our exchanges and cooperation. Still less should they justify taking the other as a threat, interfering in others' affairs or even seeking to remold others in one's own image. As a well-known saying in Europe goes, "All roads lead to Rome." Confucius said something similar 2,500 years ago, "All living things should grow in harmony without hurting one another; and all the ways should move forward without interfering with one another." The world we live in is a diverse and colorful place. Every country is entitled to choose a development path tailored to their own national conditions.
在社会制度、发展道路、价值观念等方面,中欧之间的确存在差异。但这些差异不应成为交流合作的障碍,更不能因此就把对方视作威胁,甚至试图干涉和改变对方。欧洲有一句世界闻名的谚语:“条条大路通罗马”。中国2500年前的孔子就告诫世人,“万物并育而不相害,道并行而不相悖”。世界本来就是丰富多彩的,每个国家都有权选择适合自身国情的发展路径。
China respects Europe and appreciates your achievements. We never interfere in Europe's internal affairs. Likewise, we hope Europe will also respect China and appreciate the choices made by the Chinese people. This year marks the 70th anniversary of the founding of New China. In the past several decades, we have completed a journey that took developed countries one hundred years or even centuries to accomplish. We have made it because we have found a path of socialism with Chinese characteristics under the leadership of the Communist Party of China. It is a path to development, to success, to peace and to win-win results. While accelerating our own development, we have also contributed to the common development of our cooperation partners. As President Herman Van Rompuy aptly put it, "Direction is more important than speed." Since the direction is right, why should China change course? Since it serves everyone's interests, why should China be remolded?
中国始终尊重欧洲,欣赏欧洲,从不干涉欧洲内部事务。同样,希望欧洲也能尊重中国,欣赏中国人民自己作出的选择。今年是新中国成立70周年,我们用几十年时间走完了发达国家上百年的历程,因为我们找到了一条在中国共产党领导下的中国特色社会主义道路。这条道路不仅是一条发展的道路,成功的道路,也是一条和平的道路,共赢的道路。我们在加快自身发展的同时,也实现了合作伙伴的共同发展。范龙佩主席有句名言,“方向比速度更重要”。既然方向是正确的,中国为什么要改变?既然对各方都是有利的,为什么要改变中国?
Take human rights as another example. It is the people of a country that have the biggest say in the quality of human rights there. The true value of the universality of human rights can only be realized when it is applied in the context of specific needs of different countries. Over the past seven decades since the founding of New China, our country has made historic progress in its human rights cause. We have lifted 850 million people out of poverty, contributing over 70 per cent to global progress in poverty reduction, and attained Goal One in the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development ten years ahead of schedule. Next year, for the first time in history, China will eradicate absolute poverty throughout the country.
再比如人权。一个国家的人权好不好,本国人民最有发言权。人权的普遍性要同各国的具体要求结合起来,才能体现其真正价值。新中国成立70年来,中国的人权事业取得了历史性进步。我们减少了8.5亿贫困人口,对全球减贫贡献率超过70%,提前10年完成联合国2030年可持续发展议程的首要目标,明年中国将在历史上第一次彻底消除绝对贫困。
China has provided jobs for 770 million of its people. It has met the basic needs of 250 million elderly people, 85 million people with disabilities and over 60 million urban and rural residents living on subsistence allowance. In this process, China has built the world's biggest systems of education, social security, medical care and institutions of democracy at the primary level. In China, there are 850 million Internet users and over one billion users of the new media. Every Chinese enjoys freedom of speech as provided for by the Constitution. According to a survey by the Pew Research Center, in 2019, China tops the global rankings in the level of satisfaction with government performance, with over 86 per cent of the Chinese surveyed expressing satisfaction, way above the global median of 47 per cent.
中国为7.7亿人提供就业,为2.5亿老年人、8500万残疾人和6000多万城乡低保人口提供基本保障,建成了世界上最大规模的教育体系、最大规模的社保体系、最大规模的医疗体系、最大规模的基层民主体系。中国拥有8.5亿网民和超过10亿的新媒体用户,每个人都享受着宪法保障的充分言论自由。美国皮尤中心的民调显示,2019年度中国民众对政府的满意度超过86%,为全球最高,远高于世界平均水平的47%。

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